You Can Farm

I just finished reading (truthfully I was re-reading) You Can Farm, by Joel Salatin. Subtitled The Entrepeneur’s Guide to Start and $ucceed in a Farming Enterprise, this 1998 book looks at the economics of small-scale agriculture.

For those not familiar with Joel Salatin from his profile in Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma, he is a Shenendoah Valley  “grass farmer”, raising beef, pork, poultry and rabbits using rotational grazing techniques. Everything he grows is sold locally, and he employs natural, organic methods. (I should point out that I am not aware of him being certified as an organic farmer… given the strong libertarian streak evident in his writing, I suspect he places no value in a certificate from some third party.)

I always enjoy reading about his truly relentless commitment to thrift. Joel seems to be extraordinarily gifted at finding ways to get farm infrastructure built in ways that are cheap, yet functional and sturdy. Most particularly, I am intrigued by the focus on creating a nearly closed ecological loop within the farm. He is not the pioneer of this practice, known variously as Management Intensive Grazing, Rotational Grazing or Holistic Management. (OK, there are meaningful semantic differences between these three, but not to the layman.) But he is perhaps the best known evangelist to the non-livestock oriented world, again thanks to his role in Omnivore’s Dilemma, and the upcoming documentary film, Food, Inc.

I am attempting to apply some of these methods and concepts to my operation, but of course a California avocado and citrus orchard is a very different proposition than a Virginia grass farm. I’m not saying it is better: in fact I’m sure Joel would think this insane. But on a very small scale I am using a herd of goats to graze a rocky hillside that I have been plying with mulch and covercrop seeds build enough soil to make it suitable for something other than ground squirrels and tumbleweeds. We are applying a combination of mulch, covercrop, and earthworms to kick start a corner of the home ranch back into better production. Unlike members of the organic movement, I have not forsworn any use of chemical pest management, weed control, or soil amendment. But I do not make the chemical approach my preferred remedy. I liken this to eating meat in moderation, rather than going vegan: I am not convinced the more extreme approach is either ecologically or just plain logically necessary.

My biggest concern with replicating his approach to change the whole system, as much as I admire it, is whether you could convince enough people to commit to it. You see, this is a people intensive way to farm, and we don’t have a lot of farmers left. Clearly the Salatin family and a steady crop of eager interns love this life. In pursuit of this goal, Joel is willing to sacrifice many sacred objects of contemporary American culture: TV, second cars, “boughten lumber”, and meals at restaurants. More precisely, I don’t think he views it as a sacrifice at all, being firmly committed to “opting-out” of the mainstream. But if American agriculture needs 30 million people back on the farms (compared to about 6 million today) will they be willing to do it, if it means leaving our consumer comforts behind? Can you get that many?

A year or two ago, I would have said the answer was a resounding “no.” Has our confidence in a highly-leveraged, highly consumable, short-term lifestyle been shaken enough to cause that many people to reconsider? Probably not yet. But maybe.

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Common Ground?

A few thoughts that might provide a “strawman” for the Ventura AFA’s discussion on fumigants (Not in any particular order):

Organic and sustainable are not the same thing. While any use of chemicals, including fumigants, is not inherently unsustainable, lower usage will tend to enhance sustainability.

AFA values clarity and consistency in applicable pesticide regulations, but we recognize that current regulations, labels and science will likely change with experience and new data. Our understanding and awareness of certain impacts will evolve over time, and our best practices will co-evolve with them.

 Sustainability is based on best efforts to reduce or eliminate secondary impacts from their use, and consideration for alternative methods if practicable. Further, sustainability is not an easily identifiable end point: it is a process of continuous improvement.

Legal action may be appropriate as a means of getting redress from bad actors or pressuring regulatory agencies and policymakers, but AFA calls for safe harbor for responsible growers using approved legal practices.

AFA recognizes that all human activities carry with them certain impacts, and this includes agriculture, both conventional and organic. The challenge before us as stewards is to continually seek to minimize our impacts while still deriving the needed benefits.

Conventional agriculture is not something categorically wrong that we should seek to eliminate completely, such as violence, or racism, or disease. While seeking to reduce negative impacts, we must also recognize the positive benefits that society has received from agriculture.

The bundle of technologies and practices called the “Green Revolution”, were generally accepted as a complete package during the “Better Living through Chemistry” era of the 1950’s. That experience has shown that some of these have had differing impacts and levels of effectiveness. The task at hand is to “unbundle” these technologies and practices and keep the best, rather than reject the whole package.

Fumigants (as with many other chemicals) are potentially harmful materials that require training, professionalism, concern for others, and strict compliance with applicable guidelines to be used responsibly. AFA does not endorse careless, sloppy, or illegal usage of restricted materials.

Encourage further research and extension in the areas of alternative applications methods, materials, and cropping strategies.

In order to allow growers more choices of economically viable crops and practices, AFA should continue to promote a greater diversity of markets and distribution channels and support mechanisms such as land trusts and  conservation easements to ease economic pressures that limit farmer’s options.